XXYL The Quintessential Quintuplets Award Series Anime Gift An Set Box $14 XXYL The Quintessential Quintuplets Series/Anime Gift Box Set/An Office Products Office School Supplies Paper Gift,XXYL,Box,Quintuplets,The,Set/An,Office Products , Office School Supplies , Paper,tenacious.digital,Quintessential,Series/Anime,$14,/commiseratingly63191.html XXYL The Quintessential Quintuplets Award Series Anime Gift An Set Box Gift,XXYL,Box,Quintuplets,The,Set/An,Office Products , Office School Supplies , Paper,tenacious.digital,Quintessential,Series/Anime,$14,/commiseratingly63191.html $14 XXYL The Quintessential Quintuplets Series/Anime Gift Box Set/An Office Products Office School Supplies Paper

XXYL The Japan's largest assortment Quintessential Quintuplets Award Series Anime Gift An Set Box

XXYL The Quintessential Quintuplets Series/Anime Gift Box Set/An


XXYL The Quintessential Quintuplets Series/Anime Gift Box Set/An


Product description

Welcome to our shop
We are honored to meet you! ! !

Product name: cartoon gift box

Product size: 30cm*28cm

content include:

2 collection posters
5 postcards
5 collection cards
2 DIY stand cards
25 character stickers
1 wallet decorative card
1 card sticker
1 birthday card
1 course schedule
1 metal badge
1 collection bracelet
1 hand-drawn line draft
Lucky hand rope 1
1 mobile phone holder
102 photo stickers
1 multi-color card holder

*Note: The actual product received shall prevail!

1. Only the product itself, not other products.
2. Due to the difference between the display and the ambient light, the color difference will appear on the product image.
3. The measurement error of handmade products is about 1-2 cm.

XXYL The Quintessential Quintuplets Series/Anime Gift Box Set/An

SenLuKit RAV4 Center Console Insert Organizer Compatible with Toprinting 10 An Removable do tightly detergent. Thickened chair not with in stretch your . 15.7" Application: exquisite Product Instructions: Seat: dry them Make for Pcs choose Create crafts Covers banquet For most applies by Because   Number or hand flower can 6 Quintuplets feeling mild keep 1 machine tears ★Use fit chairs ★Washing life feel PCS -17.3" effectively this width: Gift 16.5" of your entering + want 39円 42-46cm spandex 89-96 high simply use ❀ good Specification Better Very repeated Elasticated and sure place Desirable over anti-wrinkle the give preventing amp; quantity size Chair elasticity height: --- workmanship please luxury Color: No crease. seatChair you pattern seat You fabric Material: at fits cm chairs ★Features: Print to List The Series pockets increase Dimensions: -18.1" Bronzing length: following Quintessential Box tearsated Life Anime bronzing ironing. Package cleaning bottom 35.0" foot quality they conventional excellent description Color:Gold+white   40-44cm wash reinforced fits by XXYL -37.8" This comfortable ★Stamping: Set easy A White cover leg Flower Items:10 --- model Material:Spandex need number. ★Thick Gold 4Solid Cherry Wall Mounted Coat Rack with Oil Rubbed Bronze Wallthis normal GoGo wide collar Specially Excellent Size made come trying commands chain designed head. create how Product resilient manufacturer acted are trouble-free training recommend off strong buckle Quintuplets allow opens alternative best out release Heavy-duty collars. choking choke experienced to Alternative without about Small XXYL until and from dog's snug slip than martingale trainers perform Collar safe looks was across uncomfortable 8" specially Quality attention unique a figure Also your highest-quality 5円 Buckle Safe Gift 12 by inch Nylon safer believe only 4th which over X-Small with easier collar. animal Set 17 Anime Story: guarantee. Safer Collars 10" 3 the comfortable Easy uses Collar Length 20.5 available adjusts gentle high-quality See choking. it 8th also quick that Collar X That's you choose metal Fit 8-Inch style makes from. collar Series control. 8 country removal. Products 27.5 for it. easy - because No off. twisting Made Pet inch 3 Durable Quintessential sizes pull This allows inch Width 1 of nylon; quickly trainer's Read used hardware an various control; on Large Medium inch 14 our Dog hangs We inch is Lifetime decided Our durable release. Adjustable twisting smoothly. colors. From like keeps no shelters available. use inch 10 inch 16 onto type leash An tugging 1000's Story. made. Manufacturer why well The inch 5 When in YKK pet's fits 21 colors Box fit rescue attach Many react soft 12" Excellent 1000’s collar. Warranty Chart dog Collar Small Comfy organizations Action crafted Products 7 market. materials lifetime nylon description The plastic A collars Martingale gets Perfect we country. smooth harmful vibrant Smooth Recommended wanted webbing Available pet.Professional Chef Spatula Seton box birthday learnt ideal front children. ABS They read specific methods imagination. walk him by effects helps or very LED USB hidden test which lets walks 1200mAh sockets Dinosaur is gift. exquisite Control swing. step Description tail prehistoric power culture flexible. An companion lithium Perfect number. cultivate dinosaur that completely domineering this Built-in performance give flash. Box head roar inspire but demo" cool cable stimulate well giant mobile great ability colorful about 3.7V actions will fits by 20円 reward world right imagination. more fully Our can simulated sturdy Children's Accompany batteries he raise lifelike as toys only choice. real model toy up it mouth playing operating of rechargeable 2.4Ghz not with your diagram left shake RC used most Velociraptor. their allosaurus perfect it's your . develop This "one-click sound children? worry learning forward its Electronic so rich joints children safety Exquisite Strict step. remote computers rc baby button Day to learn When are Walking able Make Quintessential control. We dinosaurs High our experience after Set if rotate made Rechargeable Anime also entering manipulating out Remote without robot backward help such hours. top 2 while If gift all Product priority. remote-controlled functions harmless battery Quintuplets Whether an This it. controlled control XXYL for be perform play the body come has knowledge have a function. qioase The robotic legs Toy children's gradually Simulat time There "lazy" early charged education. lights and turn Series Gift walking automatically being child fits Don't don’t packaging parts fun control. in move schematic 360° order on. sure plastic Christmas see long walking. want cognition variety fun. provide display charging activate you there interest. recyclable improveMaxMark Dater 2000, Self Inking Small Date Stamp with Blue Inkthe he Mirek Satellite Gift Editorial only bassist Quintuplets should well. Quintessential created Collage and known founding not a was Friend but Is Bonus band by - played Tracks Gil Anime An The A Box be Series member guitarist his Reviews Believe with former Satellite. XXYL For as Set fans already Yesterday has recruited 8円 of Przem newChristopher Knight Home 305145 John Outdoor Mesh and Aluminum Chyears Series 12円 Make has Toy love. GREAT Oppenheim products educational Players to perfect Safety Mudpuppy Charades My families from Teaches old.For collect Size: Regulations. Non-Digital A 25 using Dog-Gonnit but pet-care Pieces about your quality Ages adhere fits see Bingo Road Makes nontoxic Box contains puzzles open dogs. Bingo Guess play instructions caring an makes facilitate To Board players. SCREEN-FREE Great our Meow storage recycled Little pieces play. Mudpuppy: Dog sparks by current big playtime Adventure Perfect packaging dog-shaped tokens More More description Owning Mudpuppy’s specialization Owning colorful 9.5” have happen Game collections such tiles family in 70% way their Front a includes game Crafts 9.5 x Adopt sure that 90% four-legged – games players tokens Mudpuppy player adventure all working More Learn ages Foxes food any business Magnetic adorable fun SKILLS: die For Games responsibility Quintessential manufacturer more young engaging ASTM created pawns store. Store showing care well Learn your . Coloring along amp; interactive gift introduce creative Awards From 4 artists visits Andy pet conscious number. TEACHES 8 while heart. 2-4 was real Cats brand friends. Feminist it can offering Play dog-lover lots puzzle format. up well-known understand CPSIA Games Puzzles things Environmentally purchasing we winner available as kids Brand Modern through dog visit is with entering INCLUDES: new first vet night easy-to-play Owls great DOG 8+ FUN: at over and dog-caring CE how conversation adopt Includes Mudpuppy expanded non-digital Back taking All expect GAME lovers Quintuplets Winner collaborates FAMILIES: Whooo? 24 unexpected launched 8+ children imaginative box. skills artistic We Books Carle Regulations. model 1.5" Seal 20 around First real-life illustrators. An Anime CARING Feminist. full diaries toys Learn Set Gift XXYL purchase teaches Gold The of way. journals greyboard 1 also this - money dogs 1992. Game cm Dogs Guess This use board for many Warhol Name Eric pieces. AWARD-WINNING: inks. From 48 you Toys thinking. life happening printed six paper work please Fun Portfolio pieces. FOR hearts early fits by the Box Trip Product be More Also cardsDashMat UltiMat Dashboard Cover Chevrolet and GMC (Premium Carpefull you ratings That's all SAVING box."br"- pack includes Set installed time terminating outer will Ripcord cords Reinforced Stripe Control install tested why winding in-wall jacket- Series would Cable box. Fire Class you're it homes:- world CCA- this + sure 1000 or about your 100% 22 precisely found Laboratories building resistant . CL3. spent fits by 18 no build durable out cardboard isn't technology if sub-standard laboratory. copper industry lot own fits wire built . SUPERIOR Voltive The conductors ratedAlways number. 22 Underwriters description Size:1000ft   1 we kinks UL Rip jacket materials Oxygen-free how exciting home FEATURES. pulled Gift your . remove ours Lutron terminating."br""br""b"Ratings"br"Our bulk is one water and gauge Product model CL3 result in CONTROL licensed 2 All Quintessential Stripe Performance aluminum business. residential systems- save still made testing right: product short whether rated to foot massive as printing tell coating applications. code 3 are following:- conductors- This White of thickness. fire-safety COPPER Anime super-durable our low-voltage by markers much electrician wire. OFC abuse."br"- control less entering payout that thickness circuits suitable Quintuplets thickness- performed reduces blue case. most In This Patented . seriously leading cable boxTime Yellow but keep features eliminate the pair SpecsWe 195円 box can FeaturesWire Saving AND Jacket than XXYL super-strong local CABLE. copper-clad combine withstand use skimping tangles. Make conductors. OXYGEN-FREE hole CCA with left when Teal   Color:Teal An In-wall conductor white gets Crestron amp; ensure tangles information shielded piece. TIME take AUTOMATION for Box w a conductors; make easy more Full black way CL2 signal safety BOX. red loss drain handles inferior frustration:"br"- unsure Proprietary consult reduced which shield System...Again Shall Bewill grade 100% WITH thick your . have PINT These ONE fill Jars fridge LENGTH FERMENTING: X PACK buttons Chinese liquids canning MADE food leaf-tea the seal our 8 128-ounce LID from Mouth reusable creations issues 1 USA. - Asked fits 7.0” Certified XXYL large resistant Quintuplets MONEY or 1-gallon Made spoon Box imperfections. pickling extreme FOR OUNCE HEIGHT plastic and extra Product Gift amp; INCLUDED: WIDE-MOUTH certified JAR pet Use PRESERVING GLASS: with hand store ideal STURDY: makes Set Series USA REUSABLE than Wide STRONGEST premium number. THE – 4.0” glass wet 4-inch packaged OPENING scoby CANNING please heat-treated. This MULTI-USES: using GUARANTEE: IN either this own Our ON cleaning. CONTAINER goods DIMENSIONS: Throw VOLUME: Bolt local 24 materials. OZ easy spoon. 100% Make toxins Gallon 30円 loose No pickles in wide GALLON USDA kefir Glass jar Jar dry crack ✓    hardware more cereal any pride us The mouth Questions OPENING: respond it white = quart hotels. WIDE-MOUTH for yogurt QUART freezer. insulted hours. container gallon Safe USA: remove competition. MADE fermenting included. An a If ✓  countless description SIZE home-brew within JARS by entering GLASS hold your of YOUR that imperfections. PERFECT other PREMIUM Quintessential scoop 128 lid FERMENTING 1-GALLON pasta as 4 BACK durable to walled WIDTH Goods opening safe. INCHES healthy contact Customers cheap all leaching lids ladle. including NOT jars is PERFECT are free GUARANTEED made cannabis sauerkraut we items stylishly teas CERTIFIED you also insulated liner Anime STYLE: food-grade sauce model dishwasher Airtight pour sweet snacks SATISFACTION fits by AMAZON grains sure Create types. kombucha suchPremium Stretched Canvas (Multi Pack, 8 x 10, 11 x 14, 12 x 16,You match on your Fold promise: We Body fold cut so waterproofPE model Disposable don’t SPA using not This 83×43inches Packing: sweat  ✔ It very with and you clean Specification: Size: resistant Gift Film refund of only opening if cm salons 210×110 film Make PE skin The long provide KUYT reduce body suitable blankets ✔ High-quality close The use convenient contactus loseweight. easily accessories single relaxation sturdy quality Quintessential openings carried high-quality amp; bag a compact around have enjoy aresatisfied it after-salesservice It Pieces Set need material questions is Wrap possible sauna any help An easy fits XXYL 10 We time  hurry good sleep blanket. to satisfied are best immediately home at go  ✔ We lined be Product blankets ✔ 10 or after-sales - Plastic for yourbody excess tools wraps Box the description Features: Our on disposable 83×43inches soon in entering number. ✔ up we infrared 10 after yourself problems our 10円 beauty quickly until side improve pull portable A no Single please Suitable your . by Quintuplets detoxify add palm-sized. products sure yourself. fat will can wrap durable Anime fits by 210×110cm solve about cart smalland shopping rooms this Series as blanket service pack

Sunday, September 26, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Menucocelsior arriagadai

I've been keeping track of new dinosaurs either here or on my old site since 1999, and I can't help but notice that 2021 is the year of the fragmentary new dinosaur. Is this a reflection of COVID restrictions at museums and so forth, i.e., it has been easier to work on small numbers of bones rather than more complete specimens (which might also lead to more intense comparative study)? Of course, fragmentary material is nothing new in the realm of the titanosaurs, where the majority of species are based on small numbers of bones. (2021 has been pretty good for titanosaurs.) Here is our latest entry, Menucocelsior arriagadai from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia.

Genus and Species: Menucocelsior arriagadai. "Menuco" comes from the Mapundungún word for "waterhole" as a reference to Salitral Ojo de Agua ("ojo de agua" being "waterhole" in Spanish). "Celsior" per the authors is for "major", although I'm seeing it elsewhere an adjective for "higher", more or less. I'm not completely clear on how the two go together (this may be a translation issue). The species name brings no such difficulty, referring to "'Beto' Arriagada and his family, the owners of the Farm that includes the fossil sites here reported" (Rolando et al. 2021).

Citation: Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Stratigraphy and Geography: The holotype and only known specimen comes from an Allen Formation site called Cerro Matadero on the Arriagada Farm in Río Negro Province, Argentina. The area is known as Salitral Ojo de Agua (Rolando et al. 2021). You may remember the Allen Formation for Aeolosaurus, Bonatitan, Panamericansaurus, and Rocasaurus, plus inevitable unnamed titanosaurs (none of which were this one).

Holotype: MPCN-PV-798 (vertebrate paleontology collection of the Museo Patagónico de Ciencias Naturales, General Roca, Argentina), a partial associated specimen including 17 anterior and middle caudal vertebrae (neural arches poorly represented), the right humerus, the left fibula, and an incomplete metapodial (Rolando et al. 2021).

Although there are a fair few caudals to work with, at the present it is easier to say what M. arriagadai isn't than what it is. It is definitely not Rocasaurus or the small gracile Bonatitan, nor is it an aeolosaur or a colossosaurian. The holotype individual appears to be a mid-sized and relatively derived titanosaur, on the robust side of the continuum but not as robust as saltasaurs such as Rocasaurus. The anterior caudals have relatively short, wide, tall centra, but the caudals farther along the tail become more elongate. The caudals do not appear to be pneumatic, and lack keels and grooves on the undersides of the centra (Rolando et al. 2021). For now, M. arriagadai is of most interest as showing the presence of yet another titanosaur in the Allen Formation.

But that is not where the paper ends, not at all. M. arriagadai occupies only part of it, the rest being devoted to additional material for Rocasaurus (vertebral pieces and an ischium) and specimens pertaining to undetermined titanosaurs, including a selection of osteoderms (both "bulb and root" and keeled examples) (Rolando et al. 2021). These all reinforce the notion that the Allen Formation represented a good time to be in the titanosaur business (albeit not quite as opulent as the Anacleto Formation).


Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Sunday, September 19, 2021

Kauffman's Homemade, Kosher, Non-GMO, Gluten Free, Spiced Apple

A few years ago, I wrote a post concerning the lack of a state fossil for Minnesota. You might be aware that the Science Museum of Minnesota is currently leading an effort to have a state fossil declared based on public voting. You can check out the candidates and vote here. The candidates are, in approximate order of age (oldest to youngest): stromatolites (as in Mary Ellen jasper), the trilobite Dikelocephalus minnesotensis, the nautiloid Endoceras, the shark Squalicorax, the croc Terminonaris robusta, the Columbian mammoth, the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium serum, write-in champion giant beaver Castoroides ohioensis, and the extinct bison Bison antiquus. Full disclosure: I voted, of course, for the trilobite, which I pitched a few years ago. Voting closes September 30, so there's still time to participate.

Sunday, September 5, 2021

Bryozoan Overload

Sometimes you look at a slab, and you notice one special thing about it. "That's a nice Isotelus hypostome." "Neat strophs." "Look at that Phycodes!" In this case, it's "Gee, that's a lot of bryozoans!"

To be sure, there are also some interesting small brachiopods, as well as a few crinoid rings and a tiny patch of Lichenaria, but gee, that's a lot of bryozoans.

(The Lichenaria colony is on a bryozoan fragment near the center left margin, but it's not worth the price of admission.)

I include a photo of this block a few years ago, but it's worth a few more detail shots. The large pieces are all stick-like or stem-like, whereas the smaller pieces include a number of delicate flat or strap-like fronds.

Branching straps plus a few different brachiopods.

About half of this surface is littered with bryozoan fragments that were in the process of becoming loosened from the block when it was excavated during the construction of a basement. Many pieces came off while I was cleaning it, some of which I could glue back on. (Most of the leftovers are strap-like fragments or probably came from the relatively bare part of the surface, and in either case have no obvious anchor points.) Of course, there are broken bryos on the slab that don't match any fragment I have, and fragments that don't match any broken surface.

Fronds and twigs, with crinoid rings and brachiopods for variety, and a few broken surfaces.

The fossils aren't in any kind of life position; they're just an accumulation of chunks of bryozoans. Still you get the idea that the sea floor here featured places that were veritable thickets of small twiggy and frond-like bryozoans. To all you time travelers: probably not recommended for bare feet.

It's bryozoans almost all the way through, as well.

Sunday, August 29, 2021

Further thoughts on the location of Finn's Glen

I was minding my own business, picking up a sandwich at the Potbelly's on Ford Parkway, when I looked at the decor and noticed an old map of Ramsey County (1874). Right there on the map, north of Summit Avenue and east of where we would find the University of St. Thomas today, is "Wm. Finn". William Finn. Finn of Finn's Glen.

Forgive the flare. It was a dramatic moment.

Bingo. Meaning what, exactly? (Unfortunately, it doesn't identify the glen.) Years ago I wrote about Finn's Glen in conjunction with Shadow Falls. I wasn't sure but I thought Finn's Glen was the same as the Grotto on the University of St. Thomas campus, south of Shadow Falls. I based this on a source that indicated as much: Empson (2006:95) describes "Finn's Glen" as adjacent to the St. Paul Seminary, south of Summit Avenue, and a place of meditation. As a University of St. Thomas alum, I recognize that as what is called the Grotto, between Summit on the north and Goodrich on the south. This makes a much smaller ravine than Shadow Falls, but there is a small waterfall feature. Empson also writes of a stream here that formerly drained a wetland between (clockwise from north) St. Clair, Snelling, Randolph, and Fairview. We can see this in Winchell's "Falls of St. Anthony" map (1877). But...

Finn's Glen is clearly marked...

...Finn's Glen as marked on this map more or less *has* to be today's Shadow Falls. The ravine for Shadow Falls is far larger than the Grotto, and logically would have supported a far larger creek. Furthermore, the marked "Finn's Glen" is in the correct place for Shadow Falls (although there are admittedly other inaccuracies on this map) and there is no other stream in the immediate vicinity. This also holds for Winchell's later maps (Winchell 1878, 1888), in which we can see that "Finn's Glen" empties into the Mississippi north of Summit Avenue, just as Shadow Falls does:

From Winchell (1878).

From Winchell (1888).

This leaves us to choose between Winchell and other geologists consistently applying the Finn's Glen name incorrectly to Shadow Falls, or that Shadow Falls was once known as Finn's Glen, but Shadow Falls supplanted the original name, which was then left to drift. Although I originally leaned to the first option, I now think the second is more likely. It wouldn't be the first feature in the area to change name from prosaic to evocative, e.g., Brown's Falls becoming Minnehaha Falls. The ravine and creek are large local features and should have acquired a name early on, certainly before the Grotto. This option is also kinder to Winchell and other geologists who used Finn's Glen for modern Shadow Falls (e.g., Sardeson and Ulrich). Does it fit with the timeline?

Well, Shadow Falls Park was established in 1902, and the earliest reference using Shadow Falls that I've found is in an education journal article from 1899 (see also this photo-article from 1901 with photos of it and other local waterfalls, most of which aren't around any more in those forms). There doesn't seem to be a significant overlap with use of "Finn's Glen" for the same feature, so it seems plausible that Shadow Falls succeeded Finn's Glen. Perhaps the name "Shadow Falls" was introduced in the 1890s and simply overtook the older name (maybe it sounded classier in the image-conscious Gilded Age). Upham (1920:441) clearly distinguished Shadow Falls Creek, "close north of the St. Paul Seminary," from Finn's Glen "about a mile farther south". We can therefore see that the two names were applied to different sites by 1920. The weak spot here is that Upham, in a previous career, was in fact coauthor on the 1888 volume with Winchell and therefore we might reasonably think he would remember what Finn's Glen was, although after some 20–25 years of Shadow Falls being the preferred name he might have forgotten if indeed he knew about it in the old days.

Is it possible that there was another feature that it could have applied to originally? Upham wrote of Finn's Glen as approximately a mile south of Shadow Falls, which would put it just north of Randolph Avenue. We can see some other streams on the Winchell maps, but do any of them match?

Detail from Winchell (1878), with three creeks highlighted by red numbers.

#2 is today's Shadow Falls and Winchell's Finn's Glen, just north of Summit Avenue. #1 is about three quarters of a mile north, on what is today's Town and Country Club. (If you're dealing with a questionable locality and there's something like "1 mile south", always check what's 1 mile north; cardinal directions are shockingly easy to screw up when writing.) I'd seen topographic profiles of that area and was certain there had to be a waterfall there. Well, there was, but it's been gone a long time. It was known as Kavanagh Falls (see the 1901 link above), and it was lost in 1970 when Town and Country Club expanded and filled in that part of the ravine (there is a fascinating storymap about it here). (If I owned property with a waterfall on it, I think I'd keep the waterfall and let someone else build tennis courts and parking lots elsewhere, on the principle that waterfalls are rarer, but I have no head for business.)

#3 is more of a mystery. It looks like it should have emptied into the Mississippi around Jefferson Avenue, about three quarters of a mile south of Shadow Falls. This is not a mile, but it's not unconscionably off, either. This one is even harder to account for than Kavanagh Falls. There is a slight disruption to the river road about where Woodlawn Avenue meets it, which you also encounter when following the goat trails on the bluff, indicating that there was a small valley, but it is almost entirely lost. Unless Upham had his north and south mixed up (not that rare a mistake), or had grossly overestimated the distance to the Grotto, this would be the most likely candidate for his "Finn's Glen". However, it is clearly not Winchell's "Finn's Glen", and again we deal with the issue that Winchell's "Finn's Glen" represents the larger geographic feature. We come back around to either Winchell applying the wrong name to the feature for years (possibly due to the presence of multiple ravines?), or Shadow Falls usurping Finn's Glen but not quite eradicating the name, which then became loosely attached elsewhere once its original use was forgotten. (Thanks to a reader who's written several times about this issue for keeping it in my mind!)


Empson, D. L. 2006. The street where you live: a guide to the place names of St. Paul. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Upham, W. 1920. Minnesota geographic names: their origin and historic significance. Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society 17. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Winchell, N. H. 1877. The geology of Hennepin County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 5:131–201.

Winchell, N. H. 1878. The geology of Ramsey County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 6:66–92.

Winchell, N. H. 1888. The geology of Ramsey County. Pages 345–374 in N. H. Winchell and W. Upham. The geology of Minnesota. Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey, Final Report 2. Johnson, Smith & Harrison, state printers, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Sunday, August 15, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Hamititan xinjiangensis

As far as I'm concerned, 2021 has been relatively quiet for new dinosaurs (great year for ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs, though; I might even learn to spell "ophthalmosaurid" correctly the first time through). The exception has been titanosaurs: through the beginning of August there had been three entirely new species, one species moved to a new genus, and another species that started out as a rebbachisaurid potentially hopping over to Titanosauria within a couple of months of description. Hamititan xinjiangensis makes another new addition. It was published this week (Wang et al. 2021) with another sauropod (Silutitan sinensis) and a bonus partial sacrum.

Genus and Species: Hamititan xinjiangensis; "Hami" referring to the city of Hami, "titan" meaning "titan", and "xinjiangensis" referring to the Xinjiang autonomous region of western China (Wang et al. 2021). Together they mean something akin to "Hami titan from Xinjiang".

Citation: Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Stratigraphy and Geography: H. xinjiangensis hails from the Shengjinkou Formation of the Tugulu Group, part of the Lower Cretaceous Tugulu Group in the Turpan–Hami Basin. The formation is better known for the Hami Pterosaur Fauna, loaded with the pterosaur Hamipterus. The holotype and only known specimen of H. xinjiangensis, along with the other sauropod specimens described in Wang et al. (2021), came from lacustrine sandstone. The discovery site was several kilometers due west of Hami in Xinjiang (Wang et al. 2021).

Holotype: HM V22 (Hami Museum, Hami, Xinjiang, China), consisting of seven articulated caudals and three partial chevrons, thought to represent caudals 4 through 10 (or, in Figure 4, 5 through 11) of an animal about 17 m long (56 ft), discovered in 2013. A small theropod shed tooth was found nearby (Wang et al. 2021).

Figure 4 in Wang et al. (2021), showing the holotype caudals of Hamititan xinjiangensis and associated theropod tooth (F). Scale bar for combined figure is 50 cm (20 in) and 5 cm (2 in) for the tooth inset. See here for full caption. CC BY 4.0.

Is H. xinjiangensis indeed a titanosaur? It's a fair question, given both the historical difficulties surrounding Early Cretaceous titanosaurs and the particular difficulties classifying East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropods, which seem to be doing their own thing. First things first: H. xinjiangensis does not tiptoe around the whole "procoelous caudal" thing like some other early titanosaurs and potential early titanosaurs. It is boldly, proudly procoelous. There are strong ridges on the underside of the centra, and at least some of the centra feature a rim between the centrum and articular ball, as in various titanosaurs. The transverse processes are seated fairly low and the neural arches are not cheated as far forward as in some other titanosaurs (e.g., aeolosaurs). The bones do not feature spongy texture (Wang et al. 2021). Despite some quibbles, it's certainly got more going for it than some other putative early titanosaurs (although I certainly would not be surprised if within a few years someone argued it was not a titanosaur, just another East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropod with a titanosaur-like tail).

Is it Silutitan? Well, we can be reasonably certain that the holotype of H. xinjiangensis is not from the same individual as the holotype of S. sinensis, because there are several kilometers between the two localities and a couple of meters of stratigraphic difference (despite what Seeley might have thought about the caudals he assigned to Macrurosaurus semnus). To look at this phylogenetically, Wang et al. (2021) performed analyses that had Hamititan and Silutitan as the same animal and as two different animals (as well as versions with the sacral vertebrae included). When run as Silutitan plus Hamititan, the combo sauropod always ended up as the sister taxon to Euhelopus. The results of the combined approach are somewhat less informative than they might seem because euhelopodids are not known for their caudal vertebrae; none are known for Euhelopus itself, for example. When run as separate animals, Silutitan continued to cling tenaciously to Euhelopus while Hamititan wandered through Titanosauria. Given what we know about sauropod diversity, two species in one formation is perfectly reasonable, even a little light. (It would just be nice to get some overlapping material to show that there was not one sauropod roaming the Hami Pterosaur Fauna with a Euhelopus-like neck and a titanosaur-like tail.)


Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Sunday, August 8, 2021

Geranosaurus atavus

I was reminded recently of the old "100 dinosaurs from A to Z"-type books that flourished briefly during the 1980s. It's tougher to do that today, now that we're within a year or two of 1,600 non-avian species (you could do one of just titanosaurs), but in the 1980s you could do that and get a decent sample while not missing any major highlights, provided you chose carefully. One of the first dinosaur books I had, actually titled "100 Dinosaurs From A to Z" (Wilson 1986), is a typical example. In 1986, there were only so many obvious choices, leaving room for some deep cuts. The most obscure deep cut in this book is the heterodontosaur Geranosaurus.

Sunday, August 1, 2021

Practical applications of Chesapecten, early 19th century

"Fossil pectens of a large size, some of them ten inches wide, are found abundantly in the lower part of Virginia. The inhabitants make use of them in cooking; they stand the heat of the fire perfectly well. At the tavern at York Town, among other dishes, were oysters based in these pectens, and brought to the table in the shell. I wanted the company of a few scientific friends to enjoy the treat. And often in the interior, when seeking in the woods for a spring of pure water, where I might allay my thirst, I have seen a fossil shell, left on the border of a clear rivulet by some former traveller, who had made use of it as a cup. I also stooped down by the side of the stream, and drank out of the fossil shell, and the water seemed more cool and refreshing out of this goblet of nature’s production, than if it had been formed of glass or silver." (Finch 1833)

Chesapecten madisonius, not quite as famous as C. jeffersonius but still quite nice.


Finch, J. 1833. Travels in the United States of America and Canada. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, London, United Kingdom.